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Open Science and Citizen Science

Multimedia resources publicly available to learn more about Open Science and Citizen Science.

Local, Regional and Global - Open Access Initiatives

OKR - The World Bank Open Knowledge Repository

The World Bank is the largest single source of development knowledge. The World Bank Open Knowledge Repository (OKR) is The World Bank’s official open access repository for its research outputs and knowledge products.

The Open Access Policy and the OKR represent the third major development in the World Bank’s Open Development Agenda, joining these earlier initiatives:

  • Open Data Initiative (launched in April 2010): a range of reforms enabling free access to thousands of development indicators, as well as a wealth of information on World Bank project and finance, and

  • Access to Information Policy (launched in July 2010): a groundbreaking change in how the World Bank makes information available to the public.

By extending and improving access to World Bank research, the World Bank aims to encourage innovation and allow anyone in the world to use Bank knowledge to help improve the lives of those living in poverty. The OKR is constantly updated with new content, as well as legacy reports and research.

The OKR is built on DSpace, the open source platform heavily used in the open access community, powering over 2,000 open repositories, and is interoperable with other repositories. It supports optimal discoverability and re- usability of the content by complying with Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) standards. All OKR metadata is exposed through the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH).

Since its launch in 2012, millions of publications have been downloaded from the OKR, and nearly half of its users are in developing countries. The OKR was named one of ALA RUSA’s “Best Free Reference Web Sites of 2013” The World Bank also received the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resource Coalition (SPARC) “Open Access Innovator” award in 2012 for the OKR.

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online (Brazil)

SciELO is a bibliographic database, digital library, and cooperative electronic publishing model of open access journals. SciELO was created to meet the scientific communication needs of developing countries and provides an efficient way to increase visibility and access to scientific literature. Originally established in Brazil in 1997, today there are 16 countries in the SciELO network and its journal collections: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

SciELO was initially supported by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) and the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), along with the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME). SciELO provides a portal that integrates and provides access to all of the SciELO network sites. Users can search across all SciELO collections or limit the search by a single country collection, or browse by subject area, publisher, or journal title.

Redalyc - Scientific Information System Redalyc (Mexico)

Redalyc is an indexing system that contains open access journals of scientific and editorial quality. After 16 years of providing visibility and supporting the consolidation of journals, it now incorporates exclusively those journals, from any part of the world, that share the non-profit publishing model in order to preserve the scholarly and open nature of scientific communication.

DOAJ - Directory of Open Access Journals

DOAJ is a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high-quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals.

All DOAJ services are free of charge including being indexed. All data is freely available.

RePEc - Research Papers in Economics

RePEc (Research Papers in Economics) is a collaborative effort of hundreds of volunteers in 102 countries to enhance the dissemination of research in Economics and related sciences. The heart of the project is a decentralized bibliographic database of working papers, journal articles, books, books chapters, and software components, all maintained by volunteers. The collected data are then used in various services that serve the collected metadata to users or enhance it.

So far, over 2,200 archives from 103 countries have contributed about 3.8 million research items from 3,750 journals and 5,400 working paper series. Over 64,000 authors have registered and 80,000 email subscriptions are served every week. See below on how you can be part of this initiative.

EconStor (Germany)

EconStor is a publication server for scholarly economic literature, provided as a non-commercial public service by the ZBW. The full texts collected here (mostly working papers, but also journal articles, conference proceedings, etc.) are all freely accessible according to the principles of Open AccessAuthors and editors can also submit papers to EconStor free of charge.

EconStor is among the largest repositories in its discipline with 226,671 full-texts. More than 500 institutions use it for the digital dissemination of their publications in Open Access. EconStor is also an important input service for RePEc, where it is one of the most highly frequented archives. Moreover we also distribute our titles to search engines like GoogleGoogle Scholar or BASE and to academic databases like WorldCatOpenAire and EconBiz.

I4OA - The Initiative for Open Abstracts

The Initiative for Open Abstracts (I4OA) is a collaboration between scholarly publishers, infrastructure organizations, librarians, researchers and other interested parties to advocate and promote the unrestricted availability of the abstracts of the world's scholarly publications, particularly journal articles and book chapters, in trusted repositories where they are open and machine-accessible. I4OA calls on all scholarly publishers to open the abstracts of their published works, and where possible to submit them to Crossref.

Hindawi (Egypt)

Hindawi is a commercial publisher of scientific, technical, and medical (STM) literature. Founded in 1997, it currently publishes more than 230 peer-reviewed scientific journals as well as a number of scholarly monographs, with an annual output of roughly 20,000 articles each year. In 2021, Hindawi was purchased by John Wiley & Sons.

As of April 2019, 71 (30%) of its journals were indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded, with a further 107 (46%) journals indexed in the Emerging Sources Citation Index. The company has its headquarters in London, an office in Cairo, and a virtual office address in New York City. Since 2007, all of Hindawi's journals have been open access and published under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY). It is a founding member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, a participating publisher and supporter of the Initiative for Open Citations, and a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Frontiers (Switzerland)

Our journals are led and peer-reviewed by editorial boards of over 100,000 top researchers. Covering more than 900 academic disciplines, we are one of the largest and highest-cited publishers in the world. To date, our freely accessible research articles have received over 1 billion views and downloads and 1.6 million citations.

We strive to continuously empower the academic community with innovative solutions that improve how science is published, evaluated, and communicated to researchers, innovators, and the public.

BASE (Germany)

BASE is one of the world's most voluminous search engines especially for academic web resources. BASE provides more than 240 million documents from more than 8,000 content providers. You can access the full texts of about 60% of the indexed documents for free (Open Access). BASE is operated by Bielefeld University Library.

It is indexing the metadata of all kinds of academically relevant resources – journals, institutional repositories, digital collections etc. – which provide an OAI interface and use OAI-PMH for providing their contents (see our Golden Rules for Repository Managers).

Pluto Journals (United Kingdom)

Pluto Journals, the social sciences publisher based in London, UK, has announced a pilot to transform its complete journal portfolio of 21 titles to Open Access (OA) from 2021 onwards. The project “Pluto Open Journals” will be realised in partnership with Knowledge Unlatched and supported by the conceivers of the ground-breaking Subscribe-to-Open (S2O) model Libraria, a group of anthropologists and other social scientists committed to Open Access. Pluto Journals will be asking those libraries and institutions currently subscribing to any of the journals to renew for 2021 on a S2O basis, thus, contributing to making these journals completely free to readers and authors all over the world. The flip is, furthermore, supported by JSTOR, who will continue to provide the hosting service for the project.

Open Access Review of Climate and Biodiversity Research

Open Climate Campaign

  • The Open Climate Campaign can help you create, adopt and implement a new or update an existing open access policy.
  • We offer training on how to add text to your open assets so that others can freely use them, adjust your website, update your terms of service, and advertise your open assets. 

In terms of Open Access

This campaign wants to increase open access to climate science and biodiversity research. They work with bibliometric experts to determine the percent of open vs. closed climate science and biodiversity research and publish the results openly.

All you need to know about Open Access

  • Declarations

Source: Based on: Shafee, Thomas (2020). Typical publishing workflow for an academic journal article (preprint, postprint, and published) with open access sharing rights per SHERPA/RoMEO. Own work; adapted from diagram by Ginny Barbour Wikimedia Commons (CC BY 4.0 International)

Subject Pre-Print Repositories

  • Challenges in Developing Countries

  • Africa

  • Asia

  • LAC

  • Europe



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