The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this LibGuide do not necessarily reflect the views of the World Bank, the Executive Directors of the World Bank, or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this resource.
Open science aims to increase the accessibility, transparency, reliability and (re)usability of scholarly outputs (Figure 1). In addition, open science aligns with the principles of equity, diversity and inclusion, with the aim of opening the creation, evaluation and communication of scientific knowledge to marginalised scholars and societal actors beyond the traditional scientific community. This can be achieved by implementing open science practices throughout the research lifecycle, from study design to publication, and beyond.
The aim of this Recommendation is to provide an international framework for open science policy and practice that recognizes disciplinary and regional differences in open science perspectives, takes into account academic freedom, gender-transformative approaches, and the specific challenges of scientists and other open science actors in different countries and in particular in developing countries, and contributes to reducing the digital, technological and knowledge divides existing between and within countries. 2. This Recommendation outlines a common definition, shared values, principles and standards for open science at the international level and proposes a set of actions conducive to a fair and equitable operationalization of open science for all at the individual, institutional, national, regional, and international levels.3. To achieve its aim, the key objectives and areas of action of this Recommendation are as follows:
Promoting a common understanding of open science, associated benefits, and challenges, as well as diverse paths to open science;
Developing an enabling policy environment for open science;
Investing in open science infrastructures and services;
Investing in human resources, training, education, digital literacy, and capacity building for open science;
Fostering a culture of open science and aligning incentives for open science;
Promoting innovative approaches for open science at different stages of the scientific process;
Promoting international and multi-stakeholder cooperation in the context of open science and with a view to reducing digital, technological, and knowledge gaps.
Open Science is the practice of science in such a way that others can collaborate and contribute, where research data, lab notes, and other research processes are freely available, under terms that enable reuse, redistribution and reproduction of the research and its underlying data and methods (FOSTER Open Science Definition). In a nutshell, Open Science is transparent and accessible knowledge that is shared and developed through collaborative networks (Vicente-Sáez & Martínez-Fuentes 2018).
Open Science is about increased rigor, accountability, and reproducibility for research. It is based on the principles of inclusion, fairness, equity, and sharing, and ultimately seeks to change the way research is done, who is involved and how it is valued. It aims to make research more open to participation, review/refutation, improvement and (re)use for the world to benefit.
There are several definitions of "openness" with regards to various aspects of science; the Open Definition defines it thus: “Open data and content can be freely used, modified, and shared by anyone for any purpose”. Open Science encompasses a variety of practices, usually including areas like open access to publications, open research data, open-source software/tools, open workflows, citizen science, open educational resources, and alternative methods for research evaluation including open peer review (Pontika et al., 2015).
Behavior change is hard. Whatever its faults, the status quo is familiar and the warts are known. The status quo is also easy to maintain. Just do nothing, inertia takes care of everything. We even have a tendency to defend the status quo. We’d rather believe that the way it is, is the way it should be
Our mission at the Center for Open Science (COS) is to increase the openness, integrity, and reproducibility of research. Our behavior change targets are to get researchers to show their work and to share. In the present culture, standard practice is that research teams operate independently and share their findings in publications that summarize what the team learned. Usually, publications only share successes, and it isn’t possible to see what other things were tried to evaluate the credibility of the findings that are reported. In our future culture, standard practice would make the process of discovery transparent with researchers registering their plans to make all studies discoverable, and so that initial plans can be compared with the final outcomes and conclusions. Also, in our future culture, by default, researchers would share the materials, protocols, and data that they produced in the research so that others could confirm, challenge, extend, or reuse the work. All these behavior changes are in service of accelerating science and reducing waste.
COS’s strategy for culture and behavior change requires five levels of intervention represented by the pyramid above. These levels are progressive, reflecting the fact that successful implementation of higher levels depends on successful implementation of lower levels. Infrastructure is the base of the pyramid making behavior change possible. We maintain the open-source Open Science Framework (OSF) for researchers to be able to show their work and share. Researchers can register their studies, post their data and materials openly or with protected access for sensitive materials, and share their outcomes at any time to accelerate and ensure communication regardless of whether it will ever be published.
Better understand the European open research landscape
Track trends for open access to publications, data, software
Reveal hidden potential on existing resources
View open collaboration patterns
Our methodological approach is based on the following operational quality criteria:
Openness and transparency: Methodological assumptions are openly and clearly presented.
Coverage and accuracy: As detailed in graph.openaire.eu multiple data sources are ingested in the OpenAIRE research graph for coverage to the fullest extent possible, in order to provide meaningful indicators.
Clarity and replicability: We describe our construction methodology in detail so that it can be verified and used by the scholarly communication community to create ongoing updates to our proposed statistics and indicators.
Readiness and timeliness: The methodology is built around well-established open databases and already tested knowledge extraction technologies - natural language processing (NLP)/machine learning (ML) - using operational workflows in OpenAIRE to warrant timely results.
Trust and robustness: Our methodology also strives to be reliable, robust and aligned to other assessment methods so that it can be operationalized, used, and reused, in conjunction with other assessment methods.
OpenAIRE’s mission is closely linked to the mission of the European Commission: to provide unlimited, barrier free, open access to research outputs financed by public funding in Europe. OpenAIRE fulfils the EOSC vision substantially, as its operations already provide the glue for many of the user and research driven functionalities, whether these come from the long tail of science (repositories and local support) or domain disciplined research communities or Research Infrastructures.
SPARC is a non-profit advocacy organization that supports systems for research and education that are open by default and equitable by design. We believe everyone should be able to access and contribute to the knowledge that shapes our world.
As a catalyst for action, our pragmatic agenda focuses on driving policy change, supporting member action, and cultivating communities that advance our vision of knowledge as a public good. From the local to the global level, SPARC works to address the ways in which our knowledge systems exclude people due to racism, colonialism, and other legacies of injustice.
SPARC’s membership includes about 250 libraries and academic organizations across North America. This membership is complemented by affiliated SPARC coalitions in Africa, Europe, and Japan and individual member organizations in Australia, Hong Kong, and Saudi Arabia. Founded in 1998, SPARC operates as an independent project of the New Venture Fund, a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. SPARC is known by its acronym, which stands for the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition.
This introductory course will help you to understand what open science is and why it is something you should care about. You'll get to grips with the expectations of research funders and will learn how practising aspects of open science can benefit your career progression. Upon completing this course, you will:
. understand what Open Science means and why you should care about it;
. be aware of some of the different ways to go about making your own research more open over the research lifecycle;
. understand why funding bodies are in support of Open Science and what their basic requirements are;
. be aware of the potential benefits of practicing open science;
. It is important to remember that Open Science is not different to traditional science. It just means that you carry out your research in a more transparent and collaborative way. Open Science applies to all research disciplines. While Open Science is the most commonly used term, you may also hear people talking about Open Scholarship or Open Research in the Arts and Humanities.
In the first quarter of 2022, OpenAIRE will unveil a new learning platform. A learning management system (LMS) based on Moodle, configured for the needs of our communities. The new platform will cover topics of open science for different actors with best practices for RDM and will give learners a sound grounding to conduct their work. It will include a wide gamut of tools available to the research, RDM support staff and trainer communities, as well as training material for services offered by OpenAIRE.
The open science curriculum will introduce those beginning their open science journey to important definitions, tools, and resources; and provide participants at all levels recommendations on best practices.
Open Science holds the promise to make scientific endeavours more inclusive, participatory, understandable, accessible and re-usable for large audiences. However, making processes open will not per se drive wide reuse or participation unless also accompanied by the capacity (in terms of knowledge, skills, financial resources, technological readiness and motivation) to do so. These capacities vary considerably across regions, institutions and demographics. Those advantaged by such factors will remain potentially privileged, putting Open Science's agenda of inclusivity at risk of propagating conditions of ‘cumulative advantage’. With this paper, we systematically scope existing research addressing the question: ‘What evidence and discourse exists in the literature about the ways in which dynamics and structures of inequality could persist or be exacerbated in the transition to Open Science, across disciplines, regions and demographics?’ Aiming to synthesize findings, identify gaps in the literature and inform future research and policy, our results identify threats to equity associated with all aspects of Open Science, including Open Access, Open and FAIR Data, Open Methods, Open Evaluation, Citizen Science, as well as its interfaces with society, industry and policy. Key threats include: stratifications of publishing due to the exclusionary nature of the author-pays model of Open Access; potential widening of the digital divide due to the infrastructure-dependent, highly situated nature of open data practices; risks of diminishing qualitative methodologies as ‘reproducibility’ becomes synonymous with quality; new risks of bias and exclusion in means of transparent evaluation; and crucial asymmetries in the Open Science relationships with industry and the public, which privileges the former and fails to fully include the latter.
Open science aims to improve the rigor, robustness, and reproducibility of psychological research. Despite resistance from some academics, the open science movement has been championed by some early career researchers (ECRs), who have proposed innovative new tools and methods to promote and employ open research principles. Feminist ECRs have much to contribute to this emerging way of doing research. However, they face unique barriers, which may prohibit their full engagement with the open science movement. We, 10 feminist ECRs in psychology from a diverse range of academic and personal backgrounds, explore open science through a feminist lens to consider how voice and power may be negotiated in unique ways for ECRs. Taking a critical and intersectional approach, we discuss how feminist early career research may be complemented or challenged by shifts towards open science. We also propose how ECRs can act as grass-roots changemakers within the context of academic precarity. We identify ways in which open science can benefit from feminist epistemology and end with envisaging a future for feminist ECRs who wish to engage with open science practices in their own research.
As big data, open data, and open science advance to increase access to complex and large datasets for innovation, discovery, and decision-making, Indigenous Peoples’ rights to control and access their data within these data environments remain limited. Operationalizing the FAIR Principles for scientific data with the CARE Principles for Indigenous Data Governance enhances machine actionability and brings people and purpose to the fore to resolve Indigenous Peoples’ rights to and interests in their data across the data lifecycle.
The paper describes the rationale for and the origins of the modern open science movement, its dimensions and its applications. It makes recommendations to scientists, to universities, to UNESCO and to other science systems stakeholders about changes that are necessary for the effective operation of open science. The paper includes information on the ISC projects and programmes that are designed to support aspects of open science, as described in the ISC Action Plan 2019 -2021. The appendix includes answers to specific questions posed by UNESCO, for which the detailed arguments are presented in the main text.
The International Science Council (ISC) is committed to a vision of science as a global public good. This vision has profound implications for the ways in which science is conducted and used, and the roles that it plays in society.
This ISC position paper considers those implications, exploring the ways they influence the responsibilities of scientists, both individually and collectively, and how they apply in the different settings in which science is practiced.
Responsible Innovation encourages innovators to work together with stakeholders during the research and innovation process, to better align the outcomes of innovation with the values, needs and expectations of society. Assessing the benefits and costs of Responsible Innovation is crucial for furthering the responsible conduct of science, technology and innovation. However, there is until now only limited academic work on Responsible Innovation assessment. This book fills this lacuna. Assessment of Responsible Innovation: Methods and Practices presents tools for measuring, monitoring, and reporting upon the Responsible Innovation process and the social, environmental, scientific, and economic impacts of innovations. These tools help innovators to mitigate risk and to strengthen their strategic planning. This book aligns assessment tools and practices with the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The prospects as well as the limitations of various Responsible Innovation assessment approaches and tools are discussed, as well as their applicability in various industry contexts. The book brings together leading scholars in the field to present the most comprehensive review of Responsible Innovation tools. It articulates the importance of assessment and value creation, the different metrics and monitoring systems that can be deployed and the reporting mechanisms, including the importance of effective communication.
The National Academies Roundtable on Aligning Incentives for Open Science, established in 2019, has taken on an important role in addressing issues with open science. The roundtable convenes critical stakeholders to discuss the effectiveness of current incentives for adopting open science practices, current barriers of all types, and ways to move forward in order to align reward structures and institutional values. The Roundtable convened a virtual public workshop on fostering open science practices on November 5, 2020. The broad goal of the workshop was to identify paths to growing the nascent coalition of stakeholders committed to reenvisioning credit/reward systems (e.g., academic hiring, tenure and promotion, and grants)to fully incentivize open science practices. The workshop explored the information and resource needs of researchers, research institutions, government agencies, philanthropies, professional societies, and other stakeholders interested in further supporting and implementing open science practices. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussion of the workshop.
This Second French Plan extends the scope to include source code from research, structures actions promoting data sharing and openness through the creation of the Recherche Data Gouv platform, it increases the number of transformative levers available to generalise the practice of open science and is divided up into different disciplines and themes. It is firmly attached to a European-wide vision and, in the context of the French presidency of the European Union, proposes to act in favour of open science being effectively taken into account in both individual and collective assessments for research. This involves initiating a process of sustainable transformation in order to ensure that open science becomes a common and shared practice, encouraged by the whole international ecosystem of higher education, research and innovation.
Openness has long been a guiding principle for liberal democracies, where recognition of the epistemic significance of transparent, free and inclusive inquiry is a source of both political and scientific legitimacy. Just as politicians owe their credibility and influence to their perceived accountability vis-à-vis the electorate, scientists owe their credibility and influence to the perceived effectiveness and breadth of the scrutiny applied to their research. Openness is often viewed as a necessary complement to accountability and public scrutiny. As argued by philosophers ranging from Karl Popper to Jürgen Habermas, Helen Longino and Philip Kitcher, what distinguishes a dictator from an elected leader – or a scientist from a crook – is the extent to which their decision-making processes are visible, intelligible and receptive to critique.
LIBSENSE is led by the West and Central African Research and Education Network (WACREN) in collaboration with sister regional African RENs (ASREN and UbuntuNet Alliance). Other participating partners include several national RENs, libraries, library associations, universities and research communities in Africa, in conjunction with COAR, EIFL, University of Sheffield, National Institute of Informatics (Japan), GEANT, and OpenAIRE.
In 2021, LIBSENSE will work with several African countries that are committed to advance open science policies, infrastructures and services to develop national Open Science Roadmaps that can then be adapted to other countries. LIBSENSE is working with Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania and Uganda.